I highly recommend Mindset: The New Psychology of Success by Carol Dweck. Dweck is a highly respected Educational Psychologist who took the time to write a very accessible book synthesizing her research.
Some new research has recently come out of Michigan State.
"One big difference between people who think intelligence is malleable and those who think intelligence is fixed is how they respond to mistakes," says Jason S. Moser, of Michigan State University in the US.
Studies have found that people who think intelligence is malleable say things like, "When the going gets tough, I put in more effort" or "If I make a mistake, I try to learn and figure it out."
On the other hand, people who think that they can't get smarter will not take opportunities to learn from their mistakes.